A Modified Milk-Agar Medium to Enhance Growth of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes:
Soha E. Abdullatif, Hamid S. Abdalla, Samia A. Omer
Durriya M. Elhussein and Abdalla H. Sharief
Two culture media with different overlays were used to enhance the in vitro growth rates of Leishmania donovani. Addition of 5% female human urine to the medium enhanced the growth of the promastigotes by at least 40 times when compared to the classical NNN medium. Human urine induced amplification in the number of promastigotes when added to full fatty milk agar. However, when the urine was added to skimmed milk, the growth rate of promastigotes obviously declined, which reflects an inhibitory and/or lethal effect on the parasite. Furthermore, human urine might enhance the in vitro cultivation of Leishmania parasites particularly when added to NNN medium. Also fatty milk may be a suitable overlay for primary and, as well, continuous in vitro growth with an advantages of its availability in the local market and its cheap price and possibly, long durability compared to other currently available biphasic culture media.
Keywords: Leishmania donovani; Culture; Biphasic medium, In vitro.
Plasma Zinc Status in Patients with Type 2
Yassmin I. Hilmi and Mariam K. Hassan
Molecular and cellular studies have demonstrated several roles for zinc (Zn) in insulin production and the consequent action of insulin on metabolism. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that reduced Zn status is associated with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of zinc in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in healthy subjects in Sudan. The diabetic patients had no other systemic disease and were taking no medication that would interact with zinc metabolism. Zinc concentrations were measured by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean (±SD) plasma zinc in diabetic patients was 0.565 mg/dl ± 0.135, and in the healthy control was 0.846 mg/dl ±0.154. The normal range of plasma zinc is 0.8-1.5mg/dl. Fasting blood glucose was measured and it was significantly higher in diabetics than in non diabetic control subjects (p ˂ 0.001). The results of this study showed that patients with diabetes mellitus had low plasma zinc concentrations. It is concluded that impaired metabolism of this element may contribute to the progression and development of diabetes mellitus, and Zinc may have supplementary benefits in the routine management of the disease, and could be feasible strategies favoring the life quality of those who have type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Plasma zinc, Diabetes mellius
Assessing the Spreading of Nile Blend Crude Oil in the Sudanese Red Sea Coastal Water
Masoud G. Ahmed, Bashier M. El hassan and Kamal E. Bashar
Spreading is one of the most important processes of the early stages of oil slick transformation. Four physical forces were considered to develop spreading: gravity, inertia, viscous and surface tension forces. In this study Fay’s analytical approach was used to predict the spreading of Sudanese NB in the Red Sea coastal water. These results were verified using experimentally determined data from the measurement of the spread of Sudanese crude oil and kerosene on the surface seawater of the Red Sea. Two different weather conditions (wind and calm weather) were considered. The spread under calm condition was found to be slower than that under wave action. Field data showed that, Fay's theory greatly underestimated slick growth. The spreading rate of kerosene was found to be 1.12 to 4.78 times the spreading rate of NB crude oil. The results of NB was compared with other three crude oils namely Arabic Light crude oil, North Sea crude oil, and Venezuela crude oil using Fay spreading theory. The results showed that spreading rate of Arabic light, North Sea and Nile Blend were almost the same. Venezuela crude oil showed a lower spreading rate.
Keywords: Spreading, Fay equation, Nile Blend crude oil.
Assessment of Genetic Variations in Cordia africana (Lam) in Sudan Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker
Yasir M. Abdelrahim, Hind A. Babiker, Mutaman A. Abdelgader, Elnur E. Abdelrahman and Eisa E. El Gaali
Cordia (Cordia africana) is one of the important forest trees in Sudan. The study was carried out to assess the genetic diversity among four accessions of C. africana growing naturally in different geographical areas in Sudan using DNA molecular markers. The DNA was extracted from 250 mg of fresh leaf materials and subjected to PCR using 10 RAPD primers. The primers generated 45 polymorphic bands out of 64 total bands. Application of INTYS PC21- program in the cluster analysis, showed two diverse groups among the examined accessions. High similarity was observed between Ad-Damazin and Kas accessions (77%). Cordia species from Ad-Damazin, Kas and Zalingei populations formed a cluster group, whereas the species from Diling was diverged from them. The tested accessions of C. africana were found to have considerable genetic diversity. These results indicate that RAPD could be efficiently used for studying genetic diversity of wild plant species.
Keywords :Cordia africana, RAPD marker, Genetic variation, DNA.
Variability of Vegetation in Different Ecological Sites in El Rawakeeb Area –West Omdurman,Khartoum State, Sudan
Nasra A. Bashier, Abdelaziz K. Gaiballa, and Abdelhafiz A.Mohammad
ecological sites around El Rawakeeb Station west Omdurman, Khartoum state, Sudan. Parameters studied were floristic similarities, percent of vegetation cover and bare land, biomass productivity and carrying capacity.
The results indicated moderate similarity between the different sites. Vegetation cover percentage was generally low and increased towards low lands. Biomass productivity and carrying capacity were low and varied greatly between sites. There is a high bare land percentage in all sites with the highest in the hilly sites.
Based on the results obtained it is suggested to set plans to manage range resources sustainably via increasing biomass productivity, and decreasing grazing pressure. This can be done by controlling the carrying capacity to values equal to or below the values obtained from this study, and grazing time to avoid the destruct on of the available vegetation. Other improvement practices can be used such as reseeding of the depleted areas with palatable species; mainly legumes to secure high quality feed and improve soil properties. It is important to apply fertilizer to maintain maximum forage and seed production. Protection of key areas will offer a supplementary feed especially during dry season and sustain the occurrences of the endangered and decreased species. Adoption of the suitable rainwater harvesting techniques will increase forage availability, vegetation cover and decrease bare soil percentage.
Keywords: El Rawakeeb Area, Rangelands, Biomass, Productivity, Vegetation cover.
Population Densities of Shizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its Associated Natural Enemies on Three Wheat Varieties
Asma K. Mahmoud and Zuhair A. Al Abjar
The population density, trends of Shizaphis graminum and its associated natural enemies were assessed in three wheat varieties, Debeira, El nilein and Baladi in the Demonstration Farm of Sudan University of Sciences and Technology during three successive seasons 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. The greenbug started to appear and build up in the field in the third week of November and reached its peak in January. The infestation in season 2005/2006 was low compared to the other two seasons. Debeira variety harboured the greatest number of S. graminum followed by El nilein and Baladi varieties. The wheat aphid was found to be attacked by many predators and parasitoid, namely syrphid flies, coccinellids, green lacewing and the parasitoid Aphelinus sudanensis. Debeira variety harboured more predators and parasitoid than the other two varieties.
Keywords: Shizaphis graminum (Rond.), Natural enemies, Wheat varieties
Some Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Two Commercial Fish Species Plectropomus areolatus and Chanos chanos in the Sudan Red Sea Coast
Mona I. Almahy
The main objective of this was to establish information about residues of petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly aromatic hydrocarbons as benzene, toluene and exylene in sediments, and in the muscles and livers of two commercial finfish species Plectropomus areolatus (najil or silimani) and Chanos chanos (milk fish) in Sudan Red Sea Coast. The study was carried out from 2007 to 2009 in two main stations: Mohamed Qoul (control) and Port Sudan (a heavily polluted area). The results showed the highest concentrations of 2.39 ml/g benzene, 0.0012 ml/g toluene and undetectable exylene in the sediments. In the fish samples the highest concentrations were: 0.4901 ml/g of benzene, 0.0765 ml /g of toluene, and 0.1132 ml/g of exylene. The lower concentrations in sediments were: 0.18 ml /g of benzene, 0.0007 ml/g of toluene and below detection limits (BDL) of exylene. In fish meat and liver the concentrations were: 0.0025 ml/g of benzene, 0.0004 ml/g of toluene and 0.0028 ml/g of exylene.
Detection of an Emergent Fresh Groundwater Resources Using CSAMT for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
An Zhi-guo1, Di Qing-yun, Wang Guang-jie and Elzein A. Elzein
This paper discusses the use of Controlled Source Audio- Frequency Magnetotelurics Method (CSAMT) in groundwater exploration and its ability to locate bedrock depth and position with especial emphases on the distribution of limestone formation and hence the water reserves in this formation. The method was applied in 2008 as a major exploration technique in Chao-bai River and Hui River area in Beijing, China. The study was conducted to find emergency water resources sites during Olympic Games which was held in Beijing, China in 2008. The comparison between the interpreted CSAMT data, the geologic and borehole information of the area are consistent. The study proved that the method has a peculiar advantage in identifying water bearing horizons and can provide a reliable evidence for an emergent water resource reserve.
Keywords: CSAMT, Groundwater exploration and bedrock.
Irrigation Canal Lining Using Precast Concrete Units:
Experience of EL Rawakeeb Research Station
Tarig E. A. Ibrahim and Nadia A. Hamza
Surface irrigation methods usually encounter very low water use efficiencies. Hence, improving such systems become imperative to contribute in alleviating water scarcity. About 20% of the diverted water for irrigation is being lost in tertiary canals. Meanwhile, good quality linings are able to practically eliminate seepage losses from such canals. Precasting which provides high quality control was advised for mass production of tertiary canals. The objective of the current study is to minimize huge seepage losses encountered in Rawakeeb Research Station (RRS) using canal lining. The J-section was selected and forms made of metal sheets, angle bars and removable pins were designed for casting concrete canal-lets. Locally available aggregates (sand and gravel) were used for casting by developing an appropriate concrete mix. After casting the blocks were left for one hour to allow for concrete setting then the form was released. The precast units were allowed to dry for 24 hours and cured for seven days using wet kenaf sacks. Volume of cut and fill was estimated for the whole channel and the sub-grade was prepared by hauling gravelly soil from the vicinity of RRS. The sub-grade was thoroughly compacted using hand compacter. The slope was set out at 1 cm every 10 meters using a staff rod and engineer’s level. The compacted sub-grade was elevated to the required level and a pair of precast canal-lets was placed to make the channel configuration while preserving alignment. The bottom and side gaps between each two adjacent pairs were filled with cement mortar made of locally available sand. The lined section proved to be efficient with smooth water flow while seepage was virtually eliminated. Moreover, conveyance time was reduced from about 2 hours to 10 - 15 minutes (depending on the location of the field to be irrigated). "Adoption of canal lining using precast units will make desert agriculture more lucrative since irrigation efficiencies will be improved", the paper concluded.
Keywords:Irrigation, Seepage, Efficiency, Canal lining, Precasting
Physiochemical Properties of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Seed Kernel's Oil
Amel A. Ebrahim and Eisa E. El Gaali
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the important fruits in the Sudan. After
consumption of the mango fruit, seed kernels usually remain as waste. With the
objective of making use of the remains, we extracted seed kernels of five
Sudanese mango cultivars and evaluated their physiochemical properties. The
extracted oil content was ranged between 15.2% and 2.73% and their melting
point more than 40.1°C. High peroxide value (3.31mg/g) was reported in Abusamaka
cultivar. The saponification value exceeded 190 mg/g in all cultivars
while their un-saponifiable matters were found to be in the range of 1.2% to 2.3%.
The extracted oils were found to be rich in K, Na, Mg, Ca, Co, Fe and Mn. The
main unsaturated fatty acids found were stearic acid (60.88%-67.41%) and
palmatic acid (13.78%-16.95%), while the saturated oleic acid was also found
(8.32% to 11.43%). All the studied oils showed free radical scavenging and iron
chelating activities. The highest DPPH level was observed in Abu-samaka cultivar
(67%) whereas the lowest was of Elphons (40%). Phenolic, flavonoid and tannin
compounds were also observed. These results suggested that the mango seed
kernel oils could be used as a potential composition in industries rather than to left
Keywords: Mango Seed Kernel Oil, Phenolics, Favonoids, Radical Scavenging Activity.