University Marketing and Communications

Coping strategies to water shortages in central Sudan: Almanagil locality

Muna M.M. Ahmed and Magda M. El-Mansoury

Abstract

The study focused on Almanagil plateau, located in central Sudan, within three states of Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile, which was excluded from the Geizera Agricultural Scheme. Various coping strategies carried by inhabitants were studied as means of climate change adaptation. A structured questionnaire (50 small-scale farmers), key-informant interview and group discussions were undertaken in seven villages within this plateau. Questions covered coping strategies with drought and flood shocks, suggestions for water shed managements, improving surface, subsurface and ground water availability, in addition to willingness to participate in adaptation and mitigation activities. Secondary data included meteorological rainfall data for the last 6 years (2005-2010), expectations for water requirements for the next coming 10 years (2010-2016). Sources of water and quantities consumed by households and animals were studied. Remote sensing and GIS and GPS survey level data were used to provide information on potentialities for improving water sources for human consumption and irrigation. All of the surveyed villages lie within S2 with moderate suitability for irrigation but with different soil characteristics, generally slightly calcareous, susceptible to erosion. All respondents in all villages expressed shortages in water availability for both human and animal consumptions. Coping strategies with drought or floods reported were temporal migration, selling part of their animals or properties, turning to other activities. Willingness to participate in natural resource conservation was expressed by all respondents. Suggestions to improve water resources included building dams on streams, terracing, extending water pipes from canals to farmers’ field, ponds construction, enlarging and deepening of streams beds, establishing water pumps. It was concluded that the concept of multi water use services could meet farmers’ needs for cooking and sanitation and promote small enterprises as livestock raising, horticulture and crop production. In areas with gentle sloping, surface run-off could be collected and used for supplementary irrigation during dry spells.
Keywords: Climate change adaptation, coping strategies, water sources potentialities

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